Why do countries give foreign aid? Although many countries have official development assistance programs, this book argues that no two of them see the purpose of these programmes in the same way. Moreover, the way countries frame that purpose has shaped aid policy choices past and present. The author examines how Belgium long gave aid out of a sense of obligation to its former colonies, The Netherlands was more interested in pursuing international influence, Italy has focused on the reputational payoffs of aid flows and Norwegian aid has had strong humanitarian motivations since the beginning. But at no time has a single frame shaped any one country's aid policy exclusively. Instead, analysing half a century of legislative debates on aid in these four countries, this book presents a unique picture both of cross-national and over time patterns in the salience of different aid frames and of varying aid programmes that resulted.
"Interest Rate Derivatives" describes: Pricing methods; Application, structuring and valuation of interest rate and Cross currency Swap and interest Options; Methods of managing interest rate exposure; and, Trading and hedging strategies and their application in portfolio management. Basic interest rate mathematics are explored and built upon to delve into a more complex development of interest rate derivatives in general. This work is accompanied by a CD and gives you a unique stand-alone product which serves as a major reference guide on interest rate derivatives. The book itself is developed around a user-friendly excel based pricing system helping you to better understand the content by applying the theory to real life pricing. This allows you to use the book as an initial reference or learning tool to see how the maths work and leaves you with a practical calculation tool. Recommended for all financial and corporate treasury staff, MBA students, graduates and anyone looking for a mathematical guide to the practical pricing and modelling of interest rate derivatives.
Although it is commonly assumed that consumers benefit from the application of competition law, this is not necessarily always the case. Economic efficiency is paramount; thus, competition law in Europe and antitrust law in the United States are designed primarily to protect business competitors (and in Europe to promote market integration), and it is only incidentally that such law may also serve to protect consumers. That is the essential starting point of this penetrating critique. The author explores the extent to which US antitrust law and EC competition law adequately safeguard consumer interests. Specifically, he shows how the two jurisdictions have gone about evaluating collusive practices, abusive conduct by dominant firms and merger activity, and how the policies thus formed have impacted upon the promotion of consumer interests. He argues that unless consumer interests are directly and specifically addressed in the assessment process, maximization of consumer welfare is not sufficiently achieved. Using rigorous analysis he develops legal arguments that can accomplish such goals as the following: - replace the economic theory of 'consumer welfare' with a principle of consumer well-being; - build consumer benefits into specific areas of competition policy; - assess competition cases so that income distribution effects are more beneficial to consumers; and - control mergers in such a way that efficiencies are passed directly to consumers. The author argues that, in the last analysis, the promotion of consumer well-being should be the sole or at least the primary goal of any antitrust regime. Lawyers and scholars interested in the application and development and reform of competition law and policy will welcome this book. They will find not only a fresh approach to interpretation and practice in their field - comparing and contrasting two major systems of competition law - but also an extremely lucid analysis of the various economic arguments used to highlight the consumer welfare enhancing or welfare reducing effects of business practices.
Superplasticity is the ability of polycrystalline materials under certain conditions to exhibit extreme tensile elongation in a nearly homogeneous/isotropic manner. Historically, this phenomenon was discovered and systematically studied by metallurgists and physicists. They, along with practising engineers, used materials in the superplastic state for materials forming applications. Metallurgists concluded that they had the necessary information on superplasticity and so theoretical studies focussed mostly on understanding the physical and metallurgi- cal properties of superplastic materials. Practical applications, in contrast, were led by empirical approaches, rules of thumb and creative design. It has become clear that mathematical models of superplastic deformation as well as analyses for metal working processes that exploit the superplastic state are not adequate. A systematic approach based on the methods of mechanics of solids is likely to prove useful in improving the situation. The present book aims at the following. 1. Outline briefly the techniques of mechanics of solids, particularly as it applies to strain rate sensitive materials. 2. Assess the present level of investigations on the mechanical behaviour of superplastics. 3. Formulate the main issues and challenges in mechanics ofsuperplasticity. 4. Analyse the mathematical models/constitutive equations for superplastic flow from the viewpoint of mechanics. 5. Review the models of superplastic metal working processes. 6. Indicate with examples new results that may be obtained using the methods of mechanics of solids.
S. A. Lloyd proposes a radically new interpretation of Hobbes's Leviathan that shows transcendent interests--interests that override the fear of death--to be crucial to both Hobbes's analysis of social disorder and his proposed remedy to it. Most previous commentators in the analytic philosophical tradition have argued that Hobbes thought that credible threats of physical force could be sufficient to deter people from political insurrection. Professor Lloyd convincingly shows that because Hobbes took the transcendence of religious and moral interests seriously, he never believed that mere physical force could ensure social order. Lloyd's interpretation demonstrates the ineliminability of that half of Leviathan devoted to religion, and attributes to Hobbes a much more plausible conception of human nature than the narrow psychological egoism traditionally attributed to Hobbes.
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